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Breakbulk September 2019

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12 The Journal of Commerce | September 2019 www.joc.com Breakbulk & Project Cargo Of these, developers are planning 2,190 MW of projects that will use turbines of 4 MW or higher. Accord- ing to AWEA, Vestas and Siemens Gamesa supply these largest turbines, which can have blades in the range of 67 to 73 meters (220 to 240 feet). Growth in California California, the state that intro- duced wind farms to the US in 1984, is poised for a rebound in wind as a source of renewable energy, says Nancy Rader, executive director of the California Wind Energy Associ- ation (CalWEA) in Berkeley. Wind supplies 6.8 percent of all power gen- erated in the state (5,535 MW), with 71 percent of that coming from the state's "big three" wind installations — Altamont Pass in Northern Califor- nia, Tehachapi Pass in the central part of the state, and San Gorgonio Pass above San Diego. "[Wind] was increasing in 2011 and 2012 but has remained flat for the last six years, when utility-scale solar took over the market," Rader told The Journal of Commerce. California's wind industry was handcuffed by environmentalists under the administrations of Pres- ident Barack Obama and Governor Jerry Brown, Nader said. "Land uses were elevated above wind energy, and they gave us the leftovers," she said. "There's not too much wind in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts." But CalWEA sees an upturn. "We did a survey and put the potential for 4,000 MW in the state," said Nader. "Utilities and community [energy] aggregators are very interested half of 2019 compared with the same period in 2018. Corporate custom- ers bought 52 percent of Q2 PPA capacity. Together, corporations and non- utilities accounted for more than 12,300 MW of PPAs through June 30. Building wind Wind turbine manufacturers Vestas and GE Renewable Energy accounted for 91 percent of capacity installed during the first half of 2019, according to AWEA. The mix changed for projects under construction or in advanced development, however, at least for the 52 percent of projects in this category that have already reported their turbine manufacturer to AWEA. For this segment, GE represents 41 percent of market share, Vestas 36 percent, Sie- mens Gamesa 14 percent, and Nordex USA 7 percent. Turbines continue to grow in weight and length, adding complex- ity when it comes to ocean and land transport. One-third of all projects under construction or in develop- ment in the US will use turbines rated 3 MW or higher, according to AWEA. While only six projects in operation are now using 3.5 MW turbines, developers of new projects are buying turbines of 3.5 MW or higher for 22 projects, totaling 3,907 MW. Onshore, construction includes 95 projects under way in 23 states, according to AWEA, mostly concen- trated in the middle of the country, where wind is an opportunity and a challenge for logistics planners, railroads, and heavy-haul truckers. Over a third of current construction activity is in Texas, followed by Wyo- ming, Illinois, and Colorado. With 57,000 installed wind turbines operating in 41 states and two territories, wind generation capacity is nearing 100 GW in the US. Texas outstrips all other states, with 25,629 MW installed. The state added 734 MW of capacity in the second quarter of 2019 alone, led by the 478 MW Hale Wind project in the Texas panhandle town of Plainview. Iowa comes in at second on the list, with 536 MW installed during the first half of the year, plus a repowering of 407 MW by owners of two projects in the state, according to AWEA. Nineteen states now have more than 1,000 MW each of installed capacity, the association said. During Q2, the near-term US wind project pipeline reached a record of 41,801 MW either under construc - tion or in advanced development, including 3,152 MW of offshore wind. Of that total, some 20,908 MW are currently under construction, a 10 percent increase over June 2018. Owning and buying US utilities are increasingly investing directly in wind projects and accounted for 26 percent of cur- rent advanced development capacity, AWEA's report said. In the second quarter, utilities announced 1,397 MW of new capacity and substan- tial planned future spending; for example, Ameren Missouri said it will develop and own a 300-MW project in northeastern Missouri and spend $1 billion on wind generation overall. Indeed, 75 percent of capacity commissioned in the first six months of 2019 came from utilities. Eighteen directly owned wind capacity are under construction or in advanced development. Xcel Energy of Minne- apolis has the largest total capacity, with 3,499 MW, followed by Berk- shire Hathaway Energy and Northern Indiana Public Service Company. Wind power purchase agreements (PPAs) grew 10 percent in the first Byron Price, courtesy Equinor "All of the major wind components are included in the tariff lists."

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